I am often asked, when did you first begin to doubt? This is not an easy question for me to answer. As I look back over my life, there were many instances where I had doubts about a theological or political belief. If there is one constant about life it is change. Over time, our beliefs and ideologies change. Sometimes the change is so subtle that we are not really aware of it until we look back on our life years later. Anyone who says that they have never changed their beliefs, and I know several pastors who say this about themselves, is either intellectually lazy or living in denial.
Every preacher leaves Bible college with a borrowed theology. His theology is the theology that his parents, church, pastor, and college professors taught him. He believes what he believes because of the influence of others. Only when he is free of these influences does he begin to develop his own theological beliefs.
I have always been an avid student and reader. One of the frustrating things about the health problems I have is that I can no longer read like I used to. For many years, it was not uncommon for me to read 500 pages a week of theological and biographical books. To his day, I rarely read fiction. (currently, I am reading Another America: The Story of Liberia and the Former Slaves Who Ruled it) Over the course of twenty-five years in the ministry, I accumulated a large library of books. These books were my constant companions and friends. When I left the ministry in 2003, I sold off my theological library on EBay.
While I learned many things as a student at Midwestern Baptist College, most of my theological education came from the countless hours I spent reading theological books and studying for my sermons. It was in the study that I began to come to different theological conclusions than what I had been taught by my parents, former churches, former pastors and college professors. The most dramatic theological changes took place while I was pastor of Somerset Baptist Church in Somerset (later Mt Perry) Ohio.
I started the Somerset Baptist Church in July of 1983 and pastored the church for eleven years. At this point in my life, I was a typical Independent Fundamentalist Baptist (IFB) pastor and remained so until the Jack Hyles scandal rocked the IFB world in 1986. As I waded through the Hyles scandal, I began to question the gospel preached by many IFB pastors and churches. Noted preachers likes Jack Hyles, Curtin Hutson, and many of the preachers associated with the Sword of the Lord, believed that repentance was a change of mind. Simply put, the unconverted sinner was against Jesus and now he was for him. Around this time, John MacArthur came out with his book, The Gospel According to Jesus. MacArthur attacked the easy-believism gospel preached in many Evangelical/Baptist churches. MacArthur stated that repentance was not only a change of mind but also a change of conduct. If there was no turning from sin, then there was no true repentance, and without repentance there was no salvation.
The Hyles scandal, my careful assessment of the gospel preached by many in the IFB church movement, and MacArthur’s book, led me to conclude that the gospel I had been preaching was a truncated, shallow gospel. I began preaching a gospel that demanded a repentance that included a turning from sins. I believed that if Jesus was not Lord of all your life then he was not Lord at all. I believed that if a person said they were a Christian then they should act like one. Unless a person was willing to turn from their sin and fully embrace Jesus, there was no salvation for them.
A couple of years later, I began to rethink my eschatological beliefs. At the time I was a dispensationalist, pre-tribulational, and premillennial. Over the course of a few years, my eschatology gradually shifted and matured until I became post-tribulational and amillennial. At this point, I was clearly theologically wandering outside the boundary of my IFB heritage. This shift in eschatology resulted in some people leaving the church, however it also attracted new members who held a similar eschatological view.
In the late 1980’s, my theological beliefs dramatically shifted from the 1 point Calvinism (eternal security, once saved always saved) of the IFB church movement to five point Calvinism. My introduction to Calvinism came through the preaching tapes of Rolfe Barnard, a former Southern Baptist and Sword of the Lord evangelist who died in the late 1960’s. Barnard’s sermons were powerful declarations of the gospel according to Calvinism. As I listened to these tapes, it was like a light went on in my head. For a time, I was angry because I thought those who had taught me theology had lied to me. Why had no one ever told me about Calvinism? All they told me at Midwestern is that they were against Calvinism and anyone caught promoting Calvinism would be expelled.
I began devouring books about Calvinism. I opened a book account at Cumberland Valley Bible Book Service. I read the books of Puritan/Calvinist authors from the 17th,18th, and 19th century. I found out that Baptists, at one time, were quite Calvinistic, and some of my heroes in the faith, like Charles Spurgeon, were five point Calvinists. I even found out that there were Calvinists, like the late Bruce Cummons, pastor of the Massillon Baptist Temple, in the IFB church movement. From the late 1980’s until the early 2000’s, I was a committed, zealous five point Calvinist. My preaching style changed from topical sermons to expository sermons. I stopped giving altar calls and I began transforming the Somerset Baptist Church into a Calvinistic church. This move cost me 99% of my IFB pastor friends, a handful of church members, along with most all of my Arminian friends. For several years, I published a newsletter called The Sovereign Grace Reporter. I sent the newsletter to hundreds of IFB pastors, and this caused quite a shit-storm. Surprisingly, Polly’s uncle, James Dennis, pastor of the Newark Baptist Temple, was quite supportive. Keith Troyer, then pastor of Fallsburg Baptist Church, was also quite supportive. I would later be accused of leading Keith astray with the pernicious doctrines of John Calvin. (at the time, I considered Keith my best friend)
Probably by now, some readers are wondering, why the history lesson, Bruce? I think it is important for me to establish several things:
- I am an avid reader of books
- I am an avid student of whatever subject I am reading about
- I am willing to go where the evidence leads me
- I am willing to change my beliefs even if it costs me or makes me unpopular
- Truth matters more to me than being accepted by my peers, friends or family
When I was a pastor, pastor friends and parishioners loved me for these traits. They applauded my willingness to be true to the Word of God, even if they disagreed with me. Now these same people think I read too much, study too much. I have been told that the reason I am an atheist is because of books! (and there is some truth in this statement) If I would only stop reading all these books and read THE BOOK, all would be well, one former parishioner told me.
Like the leopard who can’t change its spots, I can’t stop reading and studying. Fifty plus years ago, my mother created an intellectual monster when she taught me to read. She wanted her eldest son to be like her, a devourer or literature, a person who valued truth above the approbation of men. I owe her a great debt of gratitude.
In the next post in this series, I will take a look at the theological and political changes that took place while I was pastor, from 1995-2002, of Our Father’s House in West Unity, Ohio.